Kyrgyzstan (/ˌkɜːrɡɪˈstɑːn/ KUR-gih-STAHN; Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан Kırğızstan (Kyrgyz pronunciation: [qɯrʁɯsˈstɑn]); Russian: Киргизия [kʲɪrˈɡʲizʲɪjə] or Кыргызстан [kɨrɡɨˈstan]), officially the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасы, translit. Kırğız Respublikası; Russian: Киргизская Республика, tr. Kirgizskaya Respublika), and also known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain. It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.
Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Kyrgyz Republic is a country remarkable for its natural beauty. Majestic mountain ranges give way to rolling syrts soaring up to 4000 m above sea level. Wide valleys and vast lake basins are framed by eternally snow-covered peaks, ridges and mountain ranges.
n the fertile valleys,. the industrious inhabitants of Kyrgyzstan have planted gardens, vinyards, and fields of wheat, corn, cotton, to bacco, sugar beets, vegetables, melons, essential oils and other agricultural products.
Kyrgyzstan is rich not only in its natural beauty, but also in its natural resources. Vast mountain pastures occupy half of the Republic's territory, and a significant area is blanketed by forest. The nut forests of the Chatkal, Fergana and Turkestan ranges are the largest in the world. In the spacious Chui, Talas and Fergana valleys, the fertile soil, long growing season, and an abundance of sunlight and warmth are combined with man-made irrigation systems to create favorable conditions for intensive agriculture and the cultivation .of important warm-climate crops.